Employment generation until May 2024

Jobs generated = number of jobs generated with a duration of at least 40 worker days/person.

  • Beneficiaries = 22,721
  • Workdays = 875,244
  • Jobs = 12,009
  • Women = 21%
  • Syrian = 50%
  • family members benefitting=113,605

EIIP Lebanon Phase III-Economic Impact Study 2023

The economic impact study on three projects in the third phase of EIIP Lebanon (2019-2022) that were executed during the third phase of EIIP Lebanon (2019-2022); namely El-Mina Corniche, Al-Qaa vegetable market, and Kfaraaka agricultural roads revealed positive effects on contractors and workers in terms of capacity building and employability. However, challenges such as project delays due to COVID-related restrictions, cultural barriers hindering inclusion of women and people with disabilities, and limited funds for project maintenance were identified.

Each project has its specific package of lessons learned and recommendations. Nevertheless, some are general recommendations to consider for future projects:
- Ensuring impact and sustainability while designing the project. For instance, in Al-Qaa project, a budget should have been allocated to supply the market with electricity (through solar panels) and water (digging a well).
- Considering the procurement of this type of work through proposals not through bids. It would give ILO the chance to select the best bidder regardless of the price, which may improve the quality.
- Considering more flexible and realistic inclusive selection criteria for women, people with disabilities and refugees based on the actual population segregation and proportions, as well as the nature of the work.
- Conducting a needs assessment for the area engaging the community to make sure that the implementing team will have actual support when doing the implementation, and not having to pause the project because the environment is hostile.
- Considering some flexibility and pragmatism regarding the labour-intensive criterion when the infrastructure work is very heavy and practically cannot be completed without the use of equipment.- Including the components of the ESSF (Environmental and Social Safeguards Framework) in the contract as a binding clause subject to penalty to ensure compliance by the contractor.- Assigning empowered field supervisors who are immune to the community threats and pressure and who have the buy-in of ILO’s principles and mandates. 

ILO Wage Monitoring Survey January 2024

ILO Wage Monitoring Assessment Survey Lebanon: Main Findings. January 2024

- Based on the ILO Wage Monitoring Assessment Survey that was conducted in December of 2023, and among a sample of 2000 daily wage earners, there is a significant difference in reported wages among four different sectors studied (agriculture, agro-industry, construction, and public sector). Construction workers reported the highest daily wage (13$) while agricultural workers reported the lowest daily wage ($10), a trend that holds regardless of currency of earnings. Moreover, male workers reported to earn a consistently higher wage. This is the case for both LBP and USD earnings.
- It is also worth noting that the daily wage reported in LBP is consistently equivalent to half the reported wage in USD when the average exchange rate is applied. For instance, the average LBP 649,000 daily wage reported by construction workers is equivalent to USD 7, to be compared to the USD 13 reported by similar workers who earn their wages in USD.
- The analysis of the average current USD daily wage by region and sector shows that Akkar pays the lowest daily wage across all sectors (as low as USD 7 in Agriculture and Agroindustry), with the Bekaa a close second. The highest wages in Agriculture and Agroindustry are paid in the South (USD 12 and USD 13respectively), a finding that might reflect the effect of the unstable security situation and the increased difficulty of finding daily workers. The highest construction wages (USD 17) are paid by Mount Lebanon employers, followed by the South (USD 14), then Beirut (USD 13).
- As for the minimum wage for which workers are willing to work, as was the case in 2022, the amount workers are willing to work for(USD 11) is slightly below the average current wage (USD 12). The trend holds for all three sectors. Women are willing to work for 77% of the wages of men, a ratio that mirrors the gap between the current wages of the two genders (75%).It is noteworthy that the inter-gender wage gap has improved (from 62% to 75%)since December 2022 and so have women’s expectations as they are now willing to work for 77% of men’s wages when they used to be satisfied with 64%.
- The findings of the report are informing the KfW Cash For Work group (CFW), where ILO and other agencies are working on developing a technical note and the current SMEB figures from WfP, to advise on a revision of the daily wages in KfW CFW projects.

EIIP Lebanon Phase IV- Beneficiary Survey Evaluation and Assessment 2023

In Phase IV of EIIP Lebanon, over 391,000 worker days were generated by employing 8,905 workers, including 49% Syrians, 16% women, and 2% people with disabilities. To evaluate the long-term impact of employment, qualitative and quantitative studies were conducted by a contracted consultant. The studies assessed the beneficiaries' experience with EIIP projects, perceived effects on future employability, and current employment status. The study results indicated that the EIIP projects were considered successful by the targeted communities. The inclusive approach of the work-based projects not only provided employment and income to vulnerable families but also delivered the promised outcomes. The infrastructure and rehabilitation projects benefited the entire community, creating lasting value beyond the current crisis.

- Beneficiaries were attracted to the EIIP projects because of the prevailing crises and lack of reliable opportunities; in addition to the full and timely payment system of the program.
- Safety protocols and prompt and full medical treatment were implemented relieving the workforce who cannot afford unforeseen accidents.
- Working hours and break times were honored without additional labour allowing workers to return home on time.
-The workforce was treated with professionalism and respect which was explicitly stated as reasons for enjoying the work experience compared to other jobs.
-Good relations between both genders and the host and refugee communities were maintained. This was explicitly voiced by a Syrian female beneficiary who said everyone should be treated with equal respect.
-Location near homes was important to women because it aided them to multitask. It also could help promote a sense of being useful to one’s community and appreciation of the environment.
-Learning new valuable skills was seen as an added value. Both soft and technical training was valued. Women were most empowered to meet the physical challenge and emboldened by the social support system, but men would also benefit from networking and expanded socialization opportunities.
-EIIP beneficiaries seemed to be more empowered with bigger employability than their non-beneficiary counterparts as could be seen in slightly higher reported income (187$ vs 165$) and considerably higher employability in 2023, namely the summer season (37% vs 18%).

Economic Impact Study until January 2022

An ad hoc economic impact assessment of three infrastructure projects (irrigation network in Deir al Ahmar-Baalbeck; a water reservoir in Hammana; agricultural roads in Tal Abbas-Akkar) implemented during the first two phases of EIIP gave the following results:

  • Overall, stakeholders reported a great satisfaction with the outcomes of the projects in terms of effectiveness, quality, and supervision and follow-up by the ILO.
  • In addition to the job creation facet of the projects (including 17% women employment),infrastructure has improved in the targeted villages and the local communities (farmers and residents) have benefited from income increase and/or cost decrease depending on the project, among other benefits (access to water, access to irrigation, increased agriculture production, variability of crops, improvement of agriculture conditions, increased economic activity as most of the equipment and material were bought from inside the villages, etc.)
  • Moreover, in Tal Abbas and Deir el Ahmar, the number of agriculturally exploited plots and the overall agriculturally exploited area have increased, and additional crops started growing as a result of the implementation of the projects in their regions. Cost reductions were reported as well in these two regions.
  • In Hammana, prior to the project, the majority of the households in Hammana suffered from service water interruptions/shortage which led to reducing their usage. Almost all respondents agreed that the project improved their households’ water supply compared to the period before the project’s implementation. The quality of the service water has also been improved.

Hiya Tabni until 2021

ILO in partnership with UNDP has complemented EIIP infrastructure projects with specific “Activities to increase women involvement in the Employment Intensive Infrastructure Programme in Lebanon”.

  • Hiya Tabni included training of women on topics linked to community outreach as well as infrastructure related activities through which decent work opportunities were generated targeting women and specifically those who head households.
  • Women involved in these activities were paid the same minimum daily rate offered on the EIIP infrastructure sites, and activities were designed to offer work/training opportunities for women for two months on a rolling basis.  
  • The project was implemented by two NGOs, Renee Mouawad Foundation (RMF) and ACTED.
  • Project locations were in the North (Kfaraaka, Bcharre & Mina), Mount Lebanon (Aley– Bsous, Mayrouba, Jbeil – Annaya), Bekaa (Tarchich, Riyak & Al-Qaa), and the South (Saida, Nabatieh & Marjayoun).
  • Activities included apple and olive harvesting, landscaping, garden rehabilitation, as well as road maintenance.
  • Overall, more than 700 Lebanese and Syrian women were involved in the project, generating more than 24,000 worker days, and 536 jobs.

Completed infrastructure until February 2024

EIIP has completed more than 40 infrastructure projects in over 80 municipalities. Interventions which were selected based on priority, vulnerability assessment, and labour generation potential. Below a highlight of what has been achieved so far since the launch of EIIP Lebanon;

  • A water reservoir in Hammana;
  • Vegetable markets in Zgharta and al Qaa;
  • 1.7Km of retaining walls in Bcharre;
  • 54 km of agricultural roads and 26 km of irrigation networks in many areas in Lebanon;
  • Rehabilitated Municipal Police Buildings in Beirut;
  • Rehabilitated 620km of the Lebanon Mountain Trail inc. development of new side trails;
  • Rehabilitated and maintained 280 km of roads all over the country  including spot improvement activities;
  • Constructed 4.3 km of storm water drainage systems in Mazboud and Aley;
  • Constructed and rehabilitated the waterfront in el Mina;
  • Constructed public toilets and street medians in Tripoli and constructed 7 km of sidewalks;
  • Completed Forest management activities and activities in response to covid 19 (agricultural interventions, support to MSMEs) and empowering women in construction;
  • As a direct response to the Beirut Blast of 2020, worked on rubble clearing; and later rehabilitated the Municipal police building and Customs building in Beirut as well as constructed a pedestrian network in Karantina;
  • Constructed a School block in Mhamara;
  • Rehabilitated Cultural centre in Nabatieh;
  • 4 SDCs rehabilitated; in Haouch el Oumara, Yohmor, Arab Salim, and Rahbe;
  • Constructed Sidewalks in Qab Elias;
  • 800 farmers throughout the country were supported through farm infrastructural development.

Capacity building and training until February 2024

The EIIP builds capacity of both private and public sector to plan and implement EIPs. Awareness sessions are organised for public officials while private contractors undergo training in LRBT and Decent Work Principles. The LRBT Certificate is a pre-requisite to participate in an EIIP Tender. Orientation sessions are also offered to external agencies on the Social Safeguards Framework.

  • Training Needs Assessment
  • Training Material
  • > 140 private companies trained in LRBT and Decent Work
  • > 20 Public officials have participated in awareness sessions on the EIIP approach
  • > 30Municipal officials including mayors and technical staff have been trained
  • Training provided to external clients including World Bank, CDR, UNICEF, UNRWA, CARE etc.

Survey results and impact 2021

EIIP has carried out a number of studies and surveys to measure impact and to learn lessons to improve implementation and future project design. Below are some of the highlights from Workers and Perception Survey 2021.

  • 87%were either unemployed or in search for a job opportunity
  • Majority responded that the wages provided on the EIIP projects are appropriate
  • Majority stated that the project had a positive spill over effect on the surrounding community
  • 75%of the women on the project perceived the skills they acquired on the EIIP helpful to land better jobs in the future

Guidelines and surveys

The EIIP has developed several guidelines for use in the programme and for use by other actors, and carried out a number of studies and surveys to measure impact and to learn lessons to improve implementation and future project design. See Publications page.

  • EIP Guideline
  • Environmental and Social Safeguards Frameworks
  • COVID19 EIIP Lebanon Guideline
  • Workers and Perception Survey
  • Employment Impact Survey
  • Simple Economic Assessments
  • Trainee Tracer Survey